Directions: After reading the passage below, fill in the blanks to make the passage coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank.
How Do Avalanches Happen
If you’re ever skiing in the mountains, you’ll want to be aware of avalanches. An avalanche is a sudden flow of snow down a slope, such as a mountain. The amount of snow in an avalanche 1. (vary) based on many things, but it can be such a huge amount that it can bury the bottom of a slope in dozens of feet of snow.
Avalanches 2. be caused by natural things. For example, new snow or rain can cause built-up snow to loosen and fall down the side of a mountain. Artificial triggers（诱发因素）can also cause avalanches. For example, snowmobiles, skiers, and explosives 3. (know) to lead to avalanches.
Avalanches? usually occur? during the? winter? and spring, 4. snowfall? is? greatest.? As they are dangerous to any living beings in their path, avalanches have destroyed forests, roads, railroads and even entire towns. Warning signs exist that allow experts to predict -- and often prevent -- avalanches from 5.
? (occur). When over a foot of fresh snow falls, experts know to be on the lookout for avalanches. Explosives can be used in places 6. massive snow buildups to trigger much smaller avalanches that don’t?? pose a danger to persons or property.
When deadly avalanches do occur, the moving snow can quickly reach over 80 miles per hour. Skiers caught in such avalanches can be buried under dozens of feet of snow. 7. it’s? possible to dig out? of such avalanches, not all are able to escape.
If you get tossed about by an avalanche and find yourself 8. (bury) under many feet of snow, you might not have a true sense of which way is up and which way is down. Some avalanche victims have tried to dig their way out, only to find that they were upside down and digging 9. farther under the snow rather than to the top!
Experts suggest that people caught in an avalanche try to dig around? you 10. (create) a space for air, so you can breathe more easily. Then, do your best to figure out which way is up and dig in that direction to reach the surface and signal rescuers.
In the Fake News Era, Building Trust with Consumers Is Crucial
With consumers growing increasingly frustrated with online advertising and privacy concerns, how to you convince shoppers to buy your narrative（叙述）, let alone your product?
A recent report by Trust-Radius, a software review company that connects buyers and vendors（供应商）, may be able to shed some light. Among other interesting findings, it turns out that it may actually benefit brands to be painfully _____ about their products.
Consumer awareness of influencer marketing tactics（策略）is increasing. _____? according to the report, most consumers trust online peer _____ as much as recommendations from friends -- and well above company advertising message. Feedback from everyday folks, it seems, actually carries more _____ than a brand ambassador （大使）from an out-of-reach personality.
Transparency（透明度）is crucial The report found that there is a large trust _____ between vendors and buyers. While vendors believe they are transparent, most buyers don’t appear to see it. During the sales process, for example, 85 percent of vendors -- _____ to be open about their product’s limitations during the sales process -- but? only 36 percent of buyers share that same view. The reality is, consumers don’t expect any products to be _____ -- they just want to enter relationships with their eyes wide open so that they can _____ the options that are best for? them. They also want brands to be more _____. 66 percent of consumers say they will leave a company if they feel they are being treated like a number and not an individual.
Along with the combination of take news, advertising fraud, and data leaks, there have been fake reviews as well. Review sites have been _____ giving preferential（优惠的）treatment to paid advertisers, and consumers are increasingly discerning（有辨别力的）, as a result. _____, review sites are not our only source of peer reviews, with social media providing customer experiences on a second - to - second basis. When brands treat every _____ with a customer as a potential review, they’ll start paying more attention to detail, and being alert to delivering a valued and memorable experience every time. Taking feedback seriously also lets current customers feel valued and respected and makes your business seem more approachable. This helps secure _____, and often, these customers? will become brand ambassadors to their friends, family and people they meet online.
The challenge for brands today is determining how to use the _____ of the consumer to their advantage. In an age of cutting - edge technology, artificial intelligence, and self-service customer care, it’s odd to acknowledge that the best way to build trust with your customers is by holding an open _____ with your customers. Being more human, transparent, and listening to what people are saying will see your company thrive in an era marked by consumer suspicion.
10.A.associated withB.mistaken byC.praised asD.criticized for
11.A.On the contraryB.In factC.By contrastD.In a word
As humanity has got richer, animal’s roles have changed. People need their services less than before. Fewer wolves and thieves meant less demand for dogs for protection; the internal combustion engine（内燃机）made horses unneeded; modern sanitation（卫生设备）kept rats in check and made cats less useful. No longer necessities, domestic animals became luxuries. Pet-keeping seems to kick in when household incomes rise above roughly $5,000. It is booming.
The trend is not a new one. Archaeologists（考古学家）have found 10,000-year-old graves in which dogs and people are buried together. Some cultures -- such as in Scandinavia, where dogs have long been both working dogs and companions -- have kept pets for thousands of years. But these days the pet-keeping urge has spread even to parts of the world which have no tradition of sinking into a comfortable chair with a furry creature.
The pet business is growing even faster than pet numbers, because people are spending more and more money on them. No longer are they food - waste - recyclers, fed with the remains that fall from their masters’ tables. Pet - food shelves are full of delicacies crafted to satisfy a range of appetites, including ice cream for dogs and foods for pets that are old, diabetic or suffer from sensitive digestion; a number of internet services offer food, tailored to the pet’s individual tastes.
In the business this is called “pet humanisation” -- the tendency of pet owners to treat their pets as part of the family. This is evident in the names given to dogs, which have evolved from Fido, Rex and Spot to -- in America -- Bella, Lucy and Max. It is evident in the growing market for pet clothing, pet grooming and pet hotels.
People still assume that pets must be working for humanity in some way, perhaps making people healthier or less anxious. But the evidence for that is weak. Rather, new research suggests that dogs have evolved those irresistible “puppy - dog eyes” precisely to affect human emotions. It has worked. The species that once enslaved others now works very hard to pay for the care of its pets. Sentimental（多愁善感的）Americans often refer to themselves not as cat-owners but as the cat’s “mommy” or “daddy”. South Koreans go one further, describing themselves as cat “butlers”. Watch an unlucky dog-walker trailing “his” hound（猎犬）, plastic bag in hand to pick up its mess, and you have to wonder: who’s in charge now?
1.Which of the following trends is NOT TRUE according to the passage?
A.People’s needs for animal services are decreasing.
B.Both the pet number and the pet business are growing.
C.Pets are increasingly making their owners less anxious.
D.Pet foods are more various and customized than before.
2.Which of the following is referred to as evidence of “pet humanization?”
A.The names given to pets in American families nowadays.
B.Pet’s inbuilt ability to affect emotions of their owners.
C.Human beings ever rising urge for pet-keeping.
D.Pet’s roles as both working staff and companions.
3.Which of the following statements is the author most likely to agree with?
A.Pets should be treated as equals of their human masters.
B.Human beings are getting much benefit from their pets.
C.Pet-keeping is still restricted within certain parts of the world.
D.Some pet owners spend too much money on their pets.
4.Which of the following might be the best title of the passage?
A.The Changing Roles of AnimalsB.The Urge for Pet-keeping
C.Who Owns WhomD.Love Me, Love My Dog
Depression hurts, Prozac can help
Depression isn’t just feeling down. It’s a real illness with real causes. Depression can be triggered by stressful life events, like divorce or a death in the family. Or it can appear suddenly, for no apparent reason.
Some people think you can just will yourself out of a depression. That’s not true. Many doctors believe that one thing that may cause depression is an imbalance of serotonin -- a chemical in your body. If this happens, you may have trouble sleeping. Feel unusually sad or irritable easily. Find it hard to concentrate. Lose your appetite. Lack energy. Or have trouble feeling pleasure. These are some of the symptoms that can point to depression -- especially if they last for more than a couple of weeks and if normal, everyday life feels like to much to handle.
To help fight depression, the medicine doctors now prescribe（开处方）most often is Prozac. Prozac isn’t a “happy pill”. It’s not a tranquilizer（镇静剂）. It won’t turn you into a different person.
Some people do experience mild side effects, like upset stomach, headaches, difficulty sleeping, sleepiness, anxiety and nervousness. These tend to go away within a few weeks of starting treatment, and usually aren’t serious enough to make most people stop taking it. However, if you are concerned about a side effect, or if you develop a rash（皮疹）, tell your doctor right away. And don’t forget to tell your doctor any other medicines you are taking.
Some people should not take Prozac, especially people an MAO inhibitors（单胺抑制剂）.
As you start feeling better, your doctor can suggest therapy or other means to help you work through your depression. Prozac has been carefully studied for nearly 10 years. But remember, Prozac is a prescription medicine, and it isn’t right for everyone. Only your doctor can decide if Prozac is right for you -- or for someone you love. Prozac has been prescribed for more than 17 million Americans. Chances are someone you know is feeling sunny again because of it.
1.All the following are true EXCEPT ____.
A.It is easy to get rid of depression through tremendous determination.
B.Sleep disorder is characteristic of depression symptoms.
C.Depression can be caused by combination of factors.
D.Depression is a psychological state taking the form of low mood.
2.What can we learn about Prozac from this piece of information?
A.Prozac is a newly developed drug to treat depression.
B.patients who take Prozac can experience severe side a effects.
C.A medical prescription is necessary for Prozac.
D.Over 17 million Americans have been cured by Prozac.
3.This piece of information is most probably ____.
A.an introduction to a scientific project
B.a part of prescription drug instructions
C.a part of a research report in a medical journal
D.an advertisement of a medicine for depression
Learning a second language is tricky at any age (and it only gets tougher the longer you wait to open that dusty French book). Now, in a new study, scientists have pinpointed the exact age at which your chances of reading fluency in a second language seems to plummet: 10.
The study, published in the journal Cognition, found that it’s “nearly impossible” for language learners to reach native - level fluency if they start learning a second tongue after 10. But that doesn’t seem to be because language skills go downhill. “It turns out you’re still learning fast. It’s just that you run out of time, because your ability to learn starts dropping at around 17 or 18 years old,” says study co-author Joshua Hartshorne, an assistant professor of psychology at Boston College.
Kids may be better than adults at learning new languages for many reasons. Children’s brains are more plastic than those of adults, meaning they’re better able to adapt and respond to new information. “All learning involves the brain changing,” Hartshorne says, “and children’s brains seem to be a lot more skilled at changing.”
Kids may also be more willing to try new things (and to potentially look foolish in the process) than adults are. Their comparatively new grasp on their native tongue may also be advantageous. Unlike adults, who tend to default（默认）to the rules and patterns of their first language, kids may be able to approach a new one with a blank slate（石板）.
These findings may seems discouraging, but it was heartening for scientists to learn that the critical period for fluent language acquisition might be longer than they previously thought. Some scientists believed that the brief window closes shortly after birth, while others stretched it only to early adolescence. Compared to those estimates, 17 or 18 -- when language learning ability starts to drop off -- seems relatively old. “People fared better when thy learned by immersion（沉浸）, rather than simply in a classroom. And moving to a place where our desired language is spoken is the best way to learn as an adult. If that’s not an option, you can mimic? an? immersive? environment? by? finding? ways? to? have? conversations? with? native? speakers? in? their own communities,” Hartshorne says. By doing so, it’s possible to become conversationally proficient -- even without the advantage of a child’s brain.
1.The word “plummet” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to “____”.
2.What can be inferred from Joshua Hartshorne’s words?
A.Age 10 -18 is the best time to learn a second language.
B.Children are too young to grasp a second language.
C.Communicating with native speakers enables you to master all the language skills.
D.Adults go beyond the critical period for learning a second language.
3.What might be the reason why adults can’t reach native - level fluency in a second language?
A.Adults are less influenced by their mother tongues
B.Adults are only too willing to experience something awkward in the process.
C.Adults spend more time responding to new information.
D.Adults prefer an immersive environment to a classroom in learning a second language.
4.The passage is mainly about____.
A.the approaches to learning a second language
B.the best age to learn a second language.
C.why kids learn a second language more easily than adults
D.whether adults can learn a second language like their younger selves
Directions: Read the following passage. Fill in each blank with a proper sentence given in the box. Each sentence can be used only once. Note that there are two more sentences than you need.
Search for a Human Face for Robots
Looking for a $130,000 payday? Geomiq, a British engineering and manufacturing firm is searching for a “kind and friendly” face to be the face of a robot once it goes into production. “This will entail（需要）the selected person’s face being reproduced on potentially thousands of versions of the robots worldwide,” Geomiq says in a blog post about the project.
Robots have been at the forefront of technology for decades, and are widely considered the future of our technological advancement. With the number of adults over 85 expected to triple by 20xx, according to some estimates, robots designed to keep the elderly company are becoming increasingly common. 1.
They do things like responding to voice commands, offering proactive（积极主动的）notifications and advice and letting relatives monitor conditions at home. There is still a long way to go but new robotic products are coming into fruition all the time. Geomiq says the robot line has been in the works for five years and will result in a companion for seniors.
The designer has noted in an interview with a select press pool that they can’t release too many details at this stage. 2. The designer has also stressed that unsuccessful candidates will not be contacted. The company says the need for anonymity（匿名）is due to the secretive nature of the project. However, it believes the robot will soon be “readily available” to the public and hopes the campaign will create extra buzz ahead of its eventual release. “We know that this is an extremely unique request, and signing over the licenses to your face is potentially an extremely big decision,” Geomiq said.
3. The designer has said that the project has been in development for five years, and in that time frame taken on investment from some independent venture capitals as well as a top fund based in Shanghai. the company says the robots’ purpose will be to act as a “virtual friend” for elderly people and is set to go into production next year.
The blog past doesn’t share age or gender parameters（参数）. 4. Candidates who make it to the next phase will get full details on the project. “The secrecy,” Geomiq says, “is due to non-disclosure agreement it’s signed with the robot’s designer and investors.”
A. A technology company wants to buy the rights to use someone’s face for its robots.
B. It just asks people who want to license their face to submit a photo via email for?? the chance at $130,000.
C. It is a once - in - a - while opportunity for the right person.
D. They also serve a practical purpose.
E. The company is privately - funded.
F. However, ideal candidates will be given the specifics of the project.
Directions: Read the following passage. Summarize the main idea and the main point(s) of the passage in no more than 60 words. Use your own words as far as possible.
Do We Need Art in Our Lives
No one will be surprised to hear that the arts are under fire in this day and age. We view the arts as something of a hobby, something that’s fun but certainly can’t pay the rent. If it’s not a useful skill, no wonder arts funding is being cut in schools. Do we really need art in our lives?
In schools, time and money is at a premium （稀有而珍贵）, now more than ever. With teachers having to fit so many lessons into every day. it’s easy to see why art is dropping more and more by the wayside. Budgets are dropping at an alarming rate, and what school is going to drop teaching in essential subjects such as math or science when they can drop art instead?
It seems as though the loss of art in daily life is sad fact of life, but it doesn’t have to be. There are actually a lot of practical uses for art for many people. For example, art therapy has helped people with a range of illnesses, both mental and physical, cope with their symptoms. Art is found almost anywhere you look in your home. Practical items, such as bedspreads, furniture or clothing, are all art forms in themselves and arouse emotions in the people interacting with them.
Art also gives us insight into the world. History tells us what happened and when it happened, but it can’t tell us how the population at large felt about it, which is where art steps in. We know a lot about how people in the past lived and worded, because their art has given us much a deep insight into their daily lives. We wouldn’t have that insight without it.
Most of all, we need art in our lives as it gives us a form of self-expression. Being able to talk about our feelings is essential to staying healthy. You may not think ou talk about your feelings, but you may express them in other ways. Some like to cook or bake, some like to work machinery, and others may like to paint or draw. Whatever you like to do in your spare time, you’re probably creating art every day.
So, do we need art in our lives? Many people would say no, but the art they’re thinking of is the art you see in galleries. Art is actually much more accessible and it truly needed in everyday life. It helps those in need, gives people in the future an idea of what life was like, and is a vital form of self-expression.
Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.
Directions: Write an English composition in 120 - 150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.
假设你是明启中学的'王华，你校学生会将举办主题为“Looking for the Chinese Spirit”的英语演讲比赛， 请你作为参赛者写一篇演讲稿，内容包括：