The popular image of the mountain climber is of a person carefully climbing a steep cliff with a network of safety ropes, but it is not the only kind. Many climbers now enjoy bouldering. It’s more accessible and better for the environment.
What is bouldering
Bouldering is a sport that involves climbing on, over, and around boulders up to approximately twenty feet above the ground. Participants employ no safety ropes.
improve your climbing skills by focusing on basics
places to climb, such as climbing walls at gyms and parks, easy to find
less time commitment to bouldering than to mountain climbing
intellectual and physical enjoyment as one solves problems
crimp: a very small handhold
foothold: a place where one may place a foot to aid in climbing boulder
jug： a very large handhold that is easy to use problem:The path up a boulder is referred to as the "problem"that one must solve. The " solutionis the sequence of moves one makes up and over a boulder.
Here is an example of a climber addressing a bouldering problem.
Figure 1: The climber has two routes she could take, one to the left and one to the right. The left one appears easier because it has a jug within easy reach, but look what happens if she chooses that direction. She gets stuck on the rock and has to go back down. Sometimes that is even more difficult than going up.
Figure 2: The climber takes the one to the right this time. Using a foothold and placing her righ hand in a crimp, she is able to lift herself up and locate other handholds. After only a few moves, she is able to throw her leg over the top of the boulder and pull herself up.
1.What can we leam about bouldering
A. It is a popular indoor sport.
B. It is a kind of climbing without ropes,
C. It needs maps and equipment.
D. It is a steep cliff climbing.
2.Why does bouldering become popular
A. Because it challenges the limits.B. Because it is not readily available.
C. Because it builds minds and bodies.D. Because it ia a team game.
3.According to the example, what is the right route usually like
A. It is a shortcut.B. It a dead end.
C. It is tough but to the top.D. It is lined with jugs.
I have learned something about myself since I moved from Long Island to Florida three years ago. Even though I own a home in Port St. Lucie just minutes from the ocean, an uncontrollable urge wells up to return to Long Island even as others make their way south. I guess I am a snowbird stuck in reverse. Instead of enjoying Florida’s mild winters, I willingly endure the severe weather on Long Island, the place I called home for 65 years.
I’m like a migratory bird that has lost its sense of timing and direction, my wings flapping a- gainst season.
So what makes me fly against the tide of snowbirds The answer has a lot to do with my reluc tance to give up the things that define who I am. Once I hear that the temperature on Long Island has dipped into the range of 40 to 50 degrees, I begin to long for the sight and crackling sound of a wood fire. I also long for the bright display o￡ colors — first in the ￡all trees, and then in the limits around homes and at Rockefeller Center. Floridians decorate too, but can’t create the special feel of a New England winter.
I suppose the biggest reason why I telum is to celebrate the holidays with people I haven’t seen in months. What could be better than sitting with family and friends for a Thanksgiving turkey din ner, or watching neighbors’ children excitedly open gifts on Christmas Even the first snowfall seems special. I especially enjoy seeing a bright red bird settling on a snow-covered branch ( My wife and I spend winters at a retirement community in Ridge, and I’m grateful that I don’t have to shovel.）
While these simple pleasures are not unique to Long Island, they are some of the reasmis why I come back. Who says you can’t go home
1.What does the underlined word "snowbird" in Paragraph 1 refer to
A. A person spending winter in a warmer climate.
B. A bird seen chiefly in winter.
C. A person permanently living in a foreign country.
D. A bird flying to the south in winter.
2.What’s the difference between Florida and Long Island
A. Winters in Long Island are milder.
B. The snowbirds in Long Island are rarer.
C. Weather in Long Island is severer.
D. Long Island is nearer to the ocean.
3.What did the author miss most when he was in Florida
A. The cold temporature.B. The colorful light display.
C. The family gathering.D. The winter landscape.
4.What’s the author’s purpose in writing the text
A. To praise the beauty and warmth of his hometown.
B. To describe his dream to be a free bird.
C. To explain the reasons for moving from his hometown.
D. To express his feeling of missing his hometown.
It’s undeniable that spending time outdoors and in nature lifts our spirits and makes us feel more centered and at peace. When we breathe in fresh air, and enjoy the beauty of trees, streams and oceans, we naturally tend to feel more connected to ourselves and others.
Over the past decade, scientists have been exploring why nature — and dirt specifically — is such a powerful tool in improving our mood. According to researchers, the secret may lie in the mi crobes （微生物）of the soil. One bacterium specifically----Mycobacterium Vaccae （M. Vaccae） —has been identified as having the power to affect our moods and cognitive function as well.
Experiments conducted at Sage Colleges in New York found that contact with M. Vaccae can increase serotonin levels in the brain — a chemical that is associated with higher levels of happi ness ,increased focus, and reduced anxiety. In order to explore how the bacteria can improve learn ing, researchers Dory Mathews and Susan Jenks experimented with mice in a maze. Mice that in gested the bacteria navigated the maze twice as fast as the control group and proved less anxious as well.
Humans can absorb M. Vaccae just by playing in the dirt. We take in it when we breathe, we consume it in organic vegetables, and it can also enter our bloodstream through skin contact, espe cially where we have open cuts. This may explain why children in school perform better after break.
Neuroscientist Christopher Lowry at the University of Bristol in England believes that he has i- dentified why this incredible bacterium works. "What we think happens is that the bacteria activate immune cells, which release chemicals called cytokines that then act on receptors on the sensory nerves to increase their activity. ”
Beyond the power of M. Vaceae, scientists have been proving for decades that exposure to dirt, and the huge number of microbes found in dirt, can strengthen our immune system. When our body comes into contact with bacteria, it stores die infonnation in a type of library and can then use that information to fight sickness and infection more effectively.
Happiness, focus, less anxiety......I’ll take a double dose of dirt; please!
1.What raises people’s spirits while spending time outdoors
A. Air.B. Trees.
C. WaterD. Dirt.
2.How does M. Vaccae work
A. By working on sensory nerves.B. By fighting sickness and infisction,
C. By strengthening the immune system.D. By making immune cells active.
3.According to the text, what does the author intend to do next
A. Provide some advice on reducing anxiety for readers,
B. Summarize the previous paragraphs about lifting one’s mood.
C. Explain how he or she will expose himself or herself to dirt.
D. Introduce a new topic related to dirt for discussion.
4.What can be a suitable title for the text
A. Fight Sickness and Infection More Effectively
B. How Getting Dirty Can Actually lift Your Mood
C. Let’s Take a Deep Breath of Fresh Air
D. Enjoy Beauty and Naturally Connect to Others
It is becoming increasingly important for researchers to closely monitor our ocean life. Howev er, observing sea creatures Up close is almost impossible since human presence scares them. Now, thanks to The Soft Robotic Fish, also known as SoFi, researchers may be able to keep a close eye on the sea creatures.
Built by MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory ( CSAIL), the white re- mote-controlled robot resembles the real fish, complete with a tail that waves from side to side. Though not the first autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) created to monitor the ocean , SoFi set- tles many of the problems that have blocked the usefulness of the previous robot fish.
Previous AUVs have had to be linked to boats because radio frequency communications don’t work well underwater. To overcome the problem, Director of die CSALL Daniela Rus and her team used sound waves. The technology can travel greater distances allowing divers to pilot SoFi from up to 50 feet away.
Also limiting the usefulness of traditional AUVs is the risk of collision. With the outside made of soft silicone （硅树脂）rubber and flexible plastic that keeps its inbuilt electronics dry, SoFi po ses no such danger. " Collision avoidance often leads to unnecessary movement, since the robot has to settle for a collision-free path" , says Rus. "In contrast, a soft robot is not only more likely to survive a collision but also could use it as information to form a more workable movement plan next time around. "
During test dives, SoFi moved alongside the ocean life at depths of 50 feet for up to 40 minutes at a time, taking photos and making videos. The researchers say sometimes the fish would swim a- longside the strange-looking robot-fish out of curiosity, while at other times they took no notice of its existence.
While SoFi presently only records video, future versions will include sensors. The researchers also hope to make it more autonomous. "We imagine someday it might help us uncover more secrets from the amazing underwater world that we know so little about," says Rus.
1.What does the water think of SoFi
A. It makes ocean creature detection easier.
B. It is the first AUV.
C. It is closely controlled.
D. It scares sea animals away.
2.According to para 3, which of the following is ture
A. Sound waves travel faster than radio
B. Sound waves work better than radio underwater.
C. Previous AUVs use sound Avaves to communicate.
D. A boat travels along with SoFi on the water.
3.How does SoFi deal with collision
A. It can benefit farom its inbuilt electronics.
B. It can avoid extra movement.
C. It can smartly adjust its movement plan.
D. It is set for a collision-free path.
4.What will happen to SoFi in the future
A. SoFi can record videos.
B. SoFi will go invisible.
C. SoFi will be free from external control.
D. SoFi will be equipped with smart devices.
"Post-truth"was chosen by Oxford Dictionaries as the Word of the Year 20xx. Indeed, digital misinformation is on the rise and it is hard for people to distinguish. 1.
Before the dawn of the Internet, Canadians regularly turned to trusting their preferred news papers or radio stations for the latest news. 2. It’s now coming at you from so many different sources that you need to take responsibility for what you’re seeing.
Experts recommend relying on a range of sources instead of just one, but looking into them first. 3. For example, the people connected, where they’re based, and their intention. A lack of information is certainly a warning.
Next, learning to recognize misinfonnation is important. False news spreads mostly through social media. So if you’re looking at news on Facebook, you have to handle it in a wiser way.4. Is it from a well-informed relative or a friend who regularly expresses extreme views And whatever you do, only by clicking through can you see whether the information is accurate.
5. It has no limits in achieving that goal, so it plays on feelings and uses improper lan guage. Therefore, if you feel excited to share something immediately, that’s the time you should stop and ask, "Is it accurate "If we all take that extra little pause, we’ll be able to stop this false thing from spreading.
A. Sources that are reliable tell you about themselves.
B. Fortunately, there are some simple ways to tell facts from fiction.
C. Consider who’s sharing it if it’s not posted directly from the source.
D. Today 42% of them use social media at least once a day to get their news.
E. Someone sets up "Hot Global News" , hoping the ad dollars would pour in.
F. False news is designed to seek attention in order to sell ads or make an idea public.
G. Evaluating sources and getting reliable news is important in the age of misinformation.
A Florids woman walked into a Publix supermarket last week. She asked a（n） ____question at the bakery counter, “Are there any first-birthday cakes scheduled for __ over the weekend
Nick DeClemente, who works at the store, was initially __ by the request. He then asked if the woman had any __ person in mind. To his surprise, she didn’t.
The woman said, "No, I want to pay for one anonymously （匿名）,"
Minutes later, she started to burst into __. She then explained to him that her baby was bom __ one year ago and she wanted to __ his memoiy by paying for another 1-year-old’s birthday cake.
"I was a little lost for words just because of the deep __ I developed for her," DeClemente recalled. He ___a pile of cake orders and picked out an order for a birthday cake for a 1-year-old boy named David. The buttercream topped sheet cake, which __ at least 20 people, cost $32.99. The woman __ agreed to pay.
“She told me, “Thank you, and __ that I let her do this," DeClemente said” "I hope that this lady finds __ through this gift and that the customer receiving this gift will pay it __, "“I told her how much it made my __ especially because I have a little boy on the way and wished her many __ DeClemente said, explaining he was standing by the storeys front door as she was __.
The dad-to-be said he never got her name nor did he get a __ to explain to the customer whose cake was paid for the story behind the __ gesture — but he hopes their paths ____gain.
1.A. commonB. unusualC. personalD. difficult
2.A. pick-upB. decorationC. discountD. giveaway
3.A. amusedB. struckC. confusedD. disturbed
4.A. proudB. specificC. missinigD. famous
5.A. sobsB. laughterC. cheersD. applause
6.A. deafB. blindC. lambD. dead
7.A. eraseB. collectC. storeD. honor
8.A. mourningB. respectC. anxietyD. worry
9.A. went throughB. came toC. looked forD. got by
10.A. feedsB. attractsC. servesD. fills
11.A. quietlyB. regretfllyC. proudlyD. gladly
12.A. expectedB. appreciatedC. announcedD. accepted
13.A. reliefB. peaceC. healthD. satisfaction
14.A. backB. offC. forwardD. up
15.A. dayB. businessC. successD. way
16.A. achievementsB. fortunesC. blessingsD. romances
17.A. leavingB. workingC. buyingD. wishing
18.A. rightB. desireC. chanceD. courage
19.A. smartB. sweetC. heroicD. polite
20.A. stopB. leadC. windD. cross
The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB) , the 1.(eight) wonder for the 21st cmtuiy. opened on the morning of October 24th, 20xx. The bridge links three areas, making 2.much more convenient to travel from one to another. Since opening, the three-hour drive 3.Hong Kong$ Zhuhai and Macao 4.( shorten) to 30 minutes.
The project involved more than 400 new patents ，broke seven world records and featured 5.(independent) developed key techniques and design. After an 8-year struggle, the success of the HZMB achieves 6. several generations have been dreaming of, and amazes the whole world with its demonstration of perfect skills and high-level Chinese standards. The bridge is intended to be 7. (rely) for more than 120 years. From the Belt and Road Initiative to "Created in Chi- na" , there is always a group of people 8. (provide) strong technical support for each of the country’s huge projects. From the beginning in December 20xx to the day of the official opening, all 9. (walk) of life made great contributions to the design and construction of HZMB, contribu- ting 10. (wise) of China".
Yesterday, my fnend Meyer and I went to a cafeteria close to that I live. It turned out to be one of the most unforgettable experience I had ever had.
Small although it is, the cafeteria is very popular in our area. Upon arriving at the crowded cafeteria, we spot a large sign hanging on the wall reads:"Watch Your Hat and Overcoat.”
Meyer did. He kept turning all time, almost choking on his food. I kept on eating, with thought of my own coat on the hook. Final I couldn’t help but say,"You, stupid boy, stop to watching our coats. "
"I’m only watching mine, replied Meyer. "You has been gone for over half an hour."
假定你是李华，你从某网站上得知山西省博物馆正在招募暑假英语讲解员,请你根据以 下提示,给博物馆负责外国游客接待的Mr. Jason写一封英文自荐信.内容包括:
1. 表达意愿；2. 自荐理由；3. 恳请获准。
Dear Mr. Jason,